Spears and clubs are two of your three primary weapons in Far Cry Primal, so it’s only fair you learn how to fling them at enemies as well as you stab/bash with them.
To throw a spear or club, first make sure the item is equipped. You can choose the weapon from your weapon wheel (L1 or Left Bumper). To take aim, hold L2 or Left Trigger. While holding the aim button, hit R2/Right Trigger to throw your equipped spear or club.
You can retrieve your thrown weapon by running over to where it landed, or the dead body it landed in.
The same button combination is used to aim and shoot bows, as well. Hold L2/Left Trigger to aim, and hit R2/Right Trigger to fire. You can also do the bow equivalent of shooting from the hip by skipping the aiming step and rough shooting with just the fire button. Arrows, like spears and clubs, can be retrieved from their dead body targets.